Other big movers include Ken Clarke, the "big beast" who has left the Cabinet and accepted a more junior role as a Minister Without Portfolio. He will advise the Coalition on economic policy.
Iain Duncan Smith openly defied Mr Cameron by turning down his offer to move from Work and Pensions to Justice, saying that he wanted to stay in his post in order to oversee the implementation of a new form of benefit, the Universal Credit.
In a sign that the Prime Minister heeded calls for more representatives from the Right of the Conservative Party, there were promotions for Theresa Villiers, who joined the Cabinet as Northern Ireland Secretary, Owen Paterson, who became Environment Secretary, and Andrew Mitchell, a popular choice with Tory backbenchers as Chief Whip.
But there was anger at Mr Cameron's failure to carry out his pledge to bring more women into high office. Caroline Spelman, Cheryl Gillan and Baroness Warsi left their jobs as Environment Secretary, Welsh Secretary and Party Chairman respectfully.
Maria Miller's appointment as Culture Secretary was not enough to restore the balance of women in the Cabinet. After hours of wrangling, Baroness Warsi reluctantly accepted a new job as a Senior Minister at the Foreign Office.
Grant Shapps was promoted from Housing Minister to become the new Tory Party Chairman.
And David Laws, the Liberal Democrat who resigned over his expenses after just 16 days in office two years ago, returned to the Government as Minister at the Department of Education. He will also have a role advising the Coalition on policy across Government.
There were no changes at the most senior level of the Government, with Nick Clegg, the Deputy Prime Minister, George Osborne, the Chancellor, Theresa May, the Home Secretary, William Hague, the Foreign Secretary, and Vince Cable, the Business Secretary, all staying in their posts.